Located on the red sandstone hills of Badami in Karnataka, India, the cluster of four rock-cut cave temples are an impressive work of religious art and a showcase of Chalukya temple architecture.
This page describes Cave – 3. Check the following pages for a detailed explanation of the other three caves:
Cave – 3: Maha Vishnu Temple
Unlike the other three caves, there is an inscription detailing the exact date of its completion. According to this inscription, Chalukya Mangalesha, a stepbrother of King Kirthivarma I of Chalukya dynasty, completed it in 578 CE and donated the village of Lanjisvara (present-day Nadikesvara) to this temple.
Areawise, Cave – 3 is bigger than the other three caves. Compared to them, it has a broader facade and a larger courtyard with a prakara (a protective wall) enveloping it.
The temple in Cave – 3 is dedicated to Vishnu and has reliefs related to Vishnu, his avatars, and legends narrated in Puranas. Like the other three caves, Cave -3 is a
1. Mukhamantapa (Verandah or Porch) – The flight of steps leads to the mukhamantapa. It is like an open veranda with six pillars in front of the temple. There are three life-size sculptural reliefs on the walls of each end. The left-side reliefs depict Vamanavatara, Narasimhavatara, and Harihara and the right side wall depict Astabhuja Vishnu (8-armed Visnu), Vishnu seated on Ananta and Varahavatara. The ceiling of the mukhamantapa has bas-reliefs of Vishnu, Brahma, Indra, Varuna, and Yama.
2. Sabhamantapa (Main Hall) – This is a large hall flanked on each side by two isles. The rectangular space on the ceiling is divided into 9 frames, each carved with sculptural relief. The relief of Brahma is in the center, Kartikeya is in the south, Varuna is in the west, Indra is in the east, and Kubera is in the north.
3. Garbhagriha (Sanctum Santorum) – The
Reliefs on the Mukhamantapa Walls
The ceiling of the
Vishnu Seated on Ananta
The image shows part of the
Seated majestically on the throne formed by Ananta (also known as Shesha, Adishesha, Seshanaga), a seven-headed mythical serpent, is Maha Vishnu, a form of Vishnu represented as a supreme being. Vishu’s vehicle Garuda is on the lower left and his consort Lakshmi is on the lower right.
The squarish pillars on the left are embellished with carvings of beautiful patterns and relief depicting figures and stories from ancient Indian texts and Hindu epics. The ceiling also has intricately carved bas-reliefs of Vishnu, Brahma, and Ashtadikpalas (8 guardians of the directions) that include Indra and Yama.
The image shows a large-size relief depicting the story of Varahvatara carved on the wall perpendicular to the left sidewall of the
Varahavatara is the third of the ten avatars of Vishnu (
The story of Varahavatara is a popular theme in both Chalukya and Holysals temples. Both the Chennakeshava and the Holysaleshvara temples have several reliefs carved on their walls. Cave – 2 of this cave complex also has the Varahavatara relief carved on its wall.
Ashtabhuja (Eight-Armed) Vishnu
The image shows a beautiful relief depicting Vishnu with eight arms carved on the left side of the Cave – 3 facade.
The iconography of Vishnu typically shows him with four hands, but this relief shows him with four additional hands to indicate that he is Maha Vishnu. In addition to
In Vamanavatara, Vishnu takes the following two forms:
1. Dwarf brahmin holding a wooden umbrella
2. Gigantic Trivikrama taking a giant stride. In this avatar, Vishnu curbs the powers of the asura king Mahabali and relegates him to Patala (Netherworld).
Trivikrama in this avatar is portrayed as Ashtabhuja Vishnu (8-armed Vishnu). His additional four hands carry a bow, arrow, sword and a shield. As you can see from the image, Trivikrama’s left leg is on Mahabali’s head as he takes a giant stride. Read the story below.
Trivikrama’s left leg is stretched above the site where Mahabali is performing
Note: Yagna is a Hindu religious ceremony performed by the priests (brahmins) in front of a ritual fire. It includes the ritual in which sacrificial materials are poured into the fire as priests chant hymns from the sacred texts.
Here is the story of Vamanavatara:
In this avatar, Vishnu takes the form of a diminutive brahmin to punish Mahabali, a benevolent asura (demon) king with an ambition to acquire more power and defeat the devas (demigods). He was also a grandson of Hiranyakashipu killed by Narasimha (man-lion), a previous avatar of Vishnu.
To fulfill Mahabali’s ambition, his guru Shukracharya advises him to perform yagna – a ritual in front of the fire – to please Vishnu and acquire more power. Indra, the lord of the heavens and the king of the devas, sees Mahabali as a danger to his position and authority and asks Vishnu’s help to curb Mahabali’s power and save devas from defeat.
Vishnu agrees and incarnates himself as Vamana, a dwarf brahmin carrying a wooden umbrella. Vamana goes to the
As soon as Mahabali grants his wish, Vamana, the diminutive brahmin, changes himself into Trivikrama, an enormous giant. With his long legs, Trivikrama takes his first stride from Bhuloka (Earth) to Swarga (Heaven) and then the second stride from Bhuloka to Patala (Underworld).
Vishnu then asks Mahabali to show him the position to take his third stride. Mahabali points to his head because Vishnu covered all the realms with his two strides. Vishnu then places his foot on Mahabali’s head and pushes him to Patala.
Once Mahabali is relegated to Patala, Vishnu grants him the immortality and allows him to come back to earth once a year because he was a benevolent king.
In this avatar, Vishnu has a man’s torso with the lion’s face and claws. He adopted this body to kill an asura named Hiranyakashipu, who wanted to take revenge on Vishnu for killing his brother Hiranyaksha in his previous avatar, i.e., Varahavatara.
The large-size sculptural relief depicting Harihara is carved on the wall perpendicular to the sidewall on the right side of the mukhamantapa. Harihara is a symbolical unification of Vishnu and Shiva and is a single entity made from half of Shiva’s and half of Vishnu’s features. Because of this fusion, the followers of both the Shaiva and Vaishnava traditions worship him.
As you can see from the image, Harihara is carved with Shiva’s features on the left side and Vishnu’s features on the right side. One of the left hands carries a shanka (conch), a signature object of Vishnu, indicating that the left part of Harihara belongs to Vishnu. One of the right hands carries a staff with a serpent, and the right part of his crown has a half-moon, kapala (skull cup), and a serpent, indicating that the right part of Harihara belongs to Shiva.
This is one of the most beautiful sculptural reliefs carved in the Badami caves. Adding to its beauty is the red and blue colored texture of the sandstone.
Bas-reliefs on the Ceiling
The images below show the bas-reliefs carved on the ceiling of
As you can see from the image, there are two concentric circular frames, and enclosing them is a square frame. The inner circular frame depicts Vishnu with four hands, one of which carries the Sudarshana Chakra (a disk-like weapon), and another a
Just like the Vishnu relief, this relief also has two concentric circular frames. The inner circular frame depicts Brahma seated majestically on his vehicle Hamsa (a swan). One of his four hands carries a long-handled spoon, and another a
Between the outer and inner circular frames, there are eight smaller circular frames, each with a relief carved inside.
The relief above Brahma depicts Yama, the god of justice and death, riding a buffalo. The relief below him depicts Varuna, the sea god, riding Makara. To his left is the relief depicting Indra, the king of heaven and the devas (demigods), riding Airavata, an elephant. To his right is the relief depicting Kartikeya, a son of Shiva and the god of war, riding a peacock. The other four circular frames have reliefs of yakshas and Vidyadhara couples.
The Yama relief is similar to Vishnu and Brahma relief except for the number of circular frames between inner and outer frames. The inner circular frame depicts Yama, the god of justice and death, riding his vehicle, a male buffalo.
Between the outer and inner circular frames, there are four smaller circular frames, each with a relief carved inside.
Garuda on the Eaves
The image shows a sculptural relief depicting Vishnu’s vehicle Garuda carved on the eaves of Cave – 3. This relief is above the entrance and faces the interior side of the temple. In this sculpture, Garuda, a mythical eagle-like bird, is portrayed with a human body having two wings and the nose resembling a beak. Flying above Garuda’s wings are two Vidyadhara couples.
Proceed to Cave – 4 …
Copyright © 2019 by Lawrence Rodrigues. All rights reserved.